The Stanford Medicine 25
This site is a map to a territory that must be explored in person.
We created this website to complement live, hands-on Stanford Medicine 25 sessions — the site isn't meant to be a substitute for personal experience. This site is a place to remind ourselves of what we learned or are about to learn in a hands-on session.
Abnormal gaits are commonly seen in the hospital and elsewhere. Many of them should be recognizable on sight and it would be a shame to subject a person to a CAT or MRI for lack of recognition. We review a number of abnormal gaits and their disease associations.
When it comes to an ophthalmoscopic exam there's more to it than meets the eye! Here we take a look at the various ophthalmoscopes available to internists and review their proper use.
Measuring an ankle brachial index is a simple skill that can be done at the bedside and give you helpful information about a patient's peripheral circulation. This technique is reviewed here.
A number of signs and symptoms correlate with cerebellar disease and the clinician needs to be able to elicit them from head to foot.
Do you know what a “shotty” lymph node is? Do you keep your nails neatly trimmed? Learn this and other tips from our experts and watch them perform a meticulous lymph node exam.
The second sounds and their variations can tell us volumes about everything from pulmonary or systolic hypertension to bundle-branch block.
An accurate and reproducible blood pressure reading is a basic clinical skill. We review that skill and discuss how to test for pulsus paradoxus.
Identifying an elevated jugular venous pulse will almost always affect your management of a patient. An understanding of waveforms can help you recognize everything from canon "a" waves of complete heart block to "ventricularization" of the "v" wave in tricuspid regurgitation.
Palpation is a critical part of the cardiac exam. The size and the character of the PMI (PMI) can speak volumes and predict the presence of an S3 or 4.
The pulmonary exam is more than simple auscultation--in fact percussion and inspection often tell you much more than auscultation. Knowing the normal boundaries of percussion and the surface anatomy is critical.
An enlarged spleen can be easily missed. It is a prime example of how technique matters and even with the best technique, the spleen is not easily felt.
The liver, unlike the spleen is easily located when enlarged and its surface can be readily felt.
Many if not most of the signs of liver disease are paradoxically to be found outside the abdomen. The clinician needs to be able to elicit and recognize these signs and here we review them from head to foot.
The simple act of observing venous patterns and the direction of venous flow on the abdomen can help us to differentiate inferior vena cava obstruction from portal hypertension. The techniques for detecting ascites are reviewed here.
Changes in the tongue occur in many situations. Systemic disease such as amyloidosis or lymphoma will affect its size and color. Localized infections may suggest underlying immune disorders. Nutritional deficiencies will cause abnormalities.
The knee is one of the most common causes of joint pain. A good knee exam helps us to rule out serious conditions such as a septic or inflammatory joint space and can also help make an accurate anatomical diagnosis of ligament or meniscus injury.
Careful examination of the shoulder can provide valuable information and help the physician determine when image studies may or may not be helpful.
Subtle changes in your technique can elicit an otherwise absent deep tendon reflex. Having a proper reflex hammer helps. Here we review those subtle techniques to improve on this import exam skill.
The pupillary response requires a complex integration of nerve fibers. An abnormal pupillary response can be a harbinger for disease or simply a benign process. We review the physiology behind this reflex and discuss situations where it will be abnormal.
There are many types of involuntary movements and the diagnosis rests on observation and knowledge of the types of involuntary movements and their causes.
A stroke within the internal capsule leads to a unique number of physical exam findings. We review these changes and compare them with strokes in other locations.
Before you can diagnose a skin lesion, you need to know how to describe one. This page will cover the fundamentals that you will need to know.
Examining the moles for abnormal ones involves looking for many signs. Learn more about those signs and the normal skins lesions you may commonly find.
These two forms of acne are very common. It's important to know how to differentiate between these two as it may affect treatment and outcomes.
With improvement in technology, the bedside ultrasound is becoming frequent in use. Here we discuss the principles and basics of bedside ultrasound.
A rectal exam is important to help rule out prostate issues, diagnosing causes of perirectal pain and looking for distal rectal masses. As the saying goes, "If you don't put your finger in, you will put your foot in!"
- Gait Abnormalities
- Fundoscopic Exam
- Ankle Brachial Index
- Cerebellar Exam
- Hand Exam
- Lymph Node Exam
- Cardiac Second Sounds
- Pulsus Paradoxus and Blood Pressure Measurement Techniques
- Neck Veins & Wave Forms
- Precordial Movements in the Cardiac Exam
- Pulmonary Exam: Percussion & Inspection
- Examination of the Spleen
- Examination of the Liver
- Liver Disease, Head to Foot
- Ascites & Venous Patterns
- Examination of the Tongue
- Thyroid Exam
- Low Back Exam, Approach to
- Hip Region Exam, Approach to
- Knee Exam
- Shoulder Exam
- Deep Tendon Reflexes
- Pupillary Responses
- Involuntary Movements
- Internal Capsule Stroke
- Dermatology Exam: Learning the Language
- Dermatology Exam: Nevi (Mole) Exam
- Dermatology Exam: Acne vs. Rosacea
- Bedside Ultrasound
- Rectal Exam